Camera and Lens Settings
Enter a crop factor (eg. "6.7" or "0.25") or dimensions in mm as width x height (eg. 36x24 or 15.2 x 9.5). See notes section for details.
|See notes on extended functionality.|
A resolution in MP (eg. "24MP" or "24 MP"), or in pixels (eg. 6000x4000 or 6000 x 4000).
Shutter speed in fractional (eg. 1/500) or decimal notation.
|Format||Focal Length||Av Setting*||F-number|
|Results go here.|
* The Av setting is the camera aperture setting, in 1/3rd-stops, that will closely approximate source
lens's depth of field. Available values range from f/1 to f/64 in 1/3rd stops.
Note: The experimental values and extended functions are part of an ongoing experimental concept that I’m currently developing. Please don’t contact me and ask me what it is or how to interpret it. It is only included and displayed so I can move forward on developing an idea.
The following subsections cover various bits of specific functionality.
Custom Frame/Sensor Sizes
All of the supported calculations can be preformed for any arbitrary custom frame/sensor size; not just the standard photographic ones that are provided in the sensor size menu.
To enter a custom frame, select “Custom (NaNx)” from the sensor size drop down (at the bottom). Then enter the custom size in the “Custom Sensor” box that appears below it.
Custom sizes can be entered as either a crop factor relative to the 135-format (36 x 24 mm) film frame. In which case the custom size will retain the 3:2 aspect ratio. Additionally values larger than 1 will produce a smaller frame and a value smaller than 1 will produce a larger one (e.g. entering 0.5 will produce a frame larger than 36 x 24 mm).
The other option is to enter the dimensions of the frame in millimeters, formatted as “width x height” (e.g “36 x 24” or “17.3×10.8”). Spaces will be ignored. Decimal values can be used.
Support for entering non-1/3 stop apertures such as may be used by scientific or specialty lenses.
Click the “Custom AV” button and enter the aperture value in the adjacent box.
To return to the normal aperture drop down mode, click “Custom AV” again.
Custom Circle of Confusion
By default, the calculator uses the standard circle of confusion used by most current lens manufacturers (diagonal / 1500). However, the circle of confused can be changed under advanced options. Four preset methods are:
|Modern Standard Method (Default)||Frame’s diagonal / 1500|
|Zeiss Formula||Frame’s diagonal / 1730|
|Kodak Formula||Focal length / 1720|
|Archaic Standard||Frame’s diagonal / 1000|
Additionally a custom circle of confusion can be specified in the custom box under advanced options.
Click the “[reset to def.]” link next to the displayed “Circ. of Conf.” to reset the circle of confusion to the default method.
Depth of Field Graph
The depth of field graph presents depth of field curves for the full-stop aperture settings from f/1.4 to f/16. This is done using the current settings, except aperture, specified in the input section.
For improved readability, there are limits imposed on the scale of the graph.
- The maximum depth of field that the graph will show is 10 meters (33 feet); depth of field approaches infinity at the hyperfocal distance for each aperture.
- The minimum distance is 4 times the focal length.
- The maximum distance is given by: dmax ~= focalLength * ( 750 * focallength / log(focalLength) ).
Each curve’s display can be toggled on or off in the graph by clicking the name or color in the key.
Rendered charts can be saved as a PNG image by right clicking on it and selecting “Save image as…” or the equivalent in your browser’s context menu. The depth of field graphs are provided under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Feel free to save them for use in your own content, so long as attribution to this page is provided.
Pano Shift Angles
Pano shift angles are intended to make it easier to determine useful increments for shooting stitched panorama images.
Pano shift increments target a 35% overlap of the previous frame rounded to the nearest 2.5° increment (first column), and then shows the actual overlap that will occur with that setting (second column). To be used to calculate the rotation of a panning base divided in 2.5° increments, such as the base on a Really Right Stuff tripod head or PC-LR/PRO panning clamp.
The pano shift angles are clickable, and will take you to my Pano Tripod Head Angle calculator with the calculated shift angle already filled in.
Depth of Field
Depth of field and hyperfocal distances are calculated using the following formulas.
Equivalent lenses are calculated so that the focal length produces the same approximate angle of view and the f-stop results in an aperture diameter equal to the base lens’s aperture diameter which will produce the same depth of field. Some variation will occur when the format aspect ratios do not match.
|Angle of View Method 1:||θ the angle of view|
s is the focus distance
h is the frame dimension
f is the focal length
|Angle of View Method 2:|
|Field of View:|
The calculator calculates angle of view using two different methods. Both arrive at the same result at infinity focus, but differ at closer focusing distances. Since fields of view are calculated using the angle of view, there are also two calculated values for the field of view at the specified distance; one for each method. Further, neither method is completely accurate at very close focusing distances. For more information on this, see Calculating the Angle of View: When Theory Meets Practice.
Method 1 is a “naive” method that assumes that the angle of view for the format, which is the angle of view at infinity focus, does not change when the lens is focused closer.
Method 2 compensates for lens extension when focusing closer than infinity.
Which method should you use?
|Does your lens extend when focusing?||2|
|Does your lens use an inner focusing system or is a video or cine lens?||1|
|2017-12-26||Major fix to angle and filed of view calculations to compensate for the shift needed to focus closer than infinity.|
|2017-12-25||Revised page content to be more reflective of current capabilities and features. Revised update history to make it more terse.|
|2017-10-20||Added 4 preset circle of confusion calculations. Circles of confusion are calculated on the fly instead of using ratios of 0.029.|
|2017-07-18||Added panorama shift increments to the calculator.|
|2017-05-18||Added DoF at aperture chart.|
|2017-05-17||Added ability to specify custom circle of confusion under the extended functions area (click where it says click to show extended functions).|
|2017-05-16||Major engine upgrade, changes include:|
|2017-05-08||Fixed bug with custom apertures. Improved mobile support. Extended experimental functions.|
|2017-03-13||Added custom aperture value. Reduced precision of displayed values.|
|2016-04-01||Added custom frame and crop factor support.|
|2016-10-11||Bug fixes for distance calculations as reported by Frank.|
|2016-02-25||Added new format(s): 5×7 (requested by Nameless Person), Super8, and 16mm movie.|
|2014-04-12||Added new format(s): 645D/IQ250/H5D-50c.|
|2014-05-13||Updated script engine, Added support to store current settings in the URI hash to allow linking to a specific settings.|
|2014-02-05||Added new format(s): 1/1.7″ CCD used in many compact cameras and the Pentax Q mirrorless cameras.|
|2014-02-03||Clicking on the format in the equivalent lens chart will update format and lens settings to match.|
|2014-01-28||Added angle and field of view calculations.|
|2014-01-12||Added support for metric distances. Added preset focus distances roughly corresponding to various types of portraits.|
|2011-01-17||Added features for AF calibration uses: AF Test Dist button, sets focus distance 50 times the focal length; 1/8 DoF to outputs.|